Vagrant what is it and how it works ???

What exactly is vagrant ?

Main benefits of introducing Vagrant

How to install Vagrant ?

C:\Tools\cmder
λ vagrant -v
Vagrant 2.2.14

Vagrant initialize

C:\Temp
λ mkdir test_vagrant
C:\Temp
λ cd test_vagrant\
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant init
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ cat Vagrantfile
# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :
# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure
# configures the configuration version (we support older styles for
# backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what
# you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
# The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
# For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
# https://docs.vagrantup.com.
# Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
# boxes at https://vagrantcloud.com/search.
config.vm.box = "base"
# Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
# boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
# `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
# config.vm.box_check_update = false
# Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
# within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
# accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
# NOTE: This will enable public access to the opened port
# config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080
# Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
# within the machine from a port on the host machine and only allow access
# via 127.0.0.1 to disable public access
# config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"
# Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
# using a specific IP.
# config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"
# Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
# Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
# your network.
# config.vm.network "public_network"
# Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
# the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
# the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
# argument is a set of non-required options.
# config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"
# Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
# backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
# Example for VirtualBox:
#
# config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
# # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
# vb.gui = true
#
# # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
# vb.memory = "1024"
# end
#
# View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
# information on available options.
# Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
# Ansible, Chef, Docker, Puppet and Salt are also available. Please see the
# documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
# config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
# apt-get update
# apt-get install -y apache2
# SHELL
end
C:\Temp\test_vagrant

Vagrant Add Box

C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant box add mmichal/ubuntu18_04
==> box: Loading metadata for box 'mmichal/ubuntu18_04'
box: URL: https://vagrantcloud.com/mmichal/ubuntu18_04
==> box: Adding box 'mmichal/ubuntu18_04' (v1.1.20210331) for provider: virtualbox
box: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/mmichal/boxes/ubuntu18_04/versions/1.1.20210331/providers/virtualbox.box
Download redirected to host: vagrantcloud-files-production.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com
box:
==> box: Successfully added box 'mmichal/ubuntu18_04' (v1.1.20210331) for 'virtualbox'!
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant box list
mmichal/ubuntu18_04 (virtualbox, 1.1.20210331)

Vagrant Start/ Stop VM

#BEFORE
config.vm.box = "base"
#AFTER
config.vm.box = "mmichal/ubuntu18_04"
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant up
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
default: /vagrant => C:/Temp/test_vagrant
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant ssh
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.15.0-112-generic x86_64)
* Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com
* Management: https://landscape.canonical.com
* Support: https://ubuntu.com/advantage
New release '20.04.2 LTS' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.
vagrant@vagrant:~$
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant halt
==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM...
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant destroy --force
==> default: Destroying VM and associated drives...

Vagrant Shared Directory

# config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"

Vagrant Provisioning

config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
apt-get update
apt-get install -y apache2
SHELL
config.vm.provision "shell", path: "scripts/install-docker.sh"

Vagrant Networking

config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.123.123"
config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

Vagrant Build Our Box

C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant package
==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM...
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Exporting VM...
==> default: Compressing package to: C:/Temp/test_vagrant/package.box
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ ls -l
total 1110800
-rw-r--r-- 1 Admin 197121 1137453266 May 25 20:26 package.box
-rw-r--r-- 1 Admin 197121 3095 May 25 19:55 Vagrantfile
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
C:\Temp\test_vagrant
λ vagrant box add ubuntu_1804 ubuntu_1804.box

Summary

DevOps Consultant. I’m strongly focused on automation, security, and reliability.